The average eruption times of each half of the upper and lower jaws are:

Deciduous:         I                  C                  M                            Months

7 8               18                12 24

6 9               18                12 24

Permanent         I                  C                  P               M         Months

7 8               12                 9 12       6 12 18+

                          7 8               12                 9 12       6 12 18+

The first deciduous tooth is a lower central incisor; the first permanent tooth is a first molar. The lower permanent teeth appear slightly earlier than the upper. The wisdom teeth (third molars) appear between the 17th and 25th years and are usually the first to be shed.

Note the number and the state of the teeth (figure 11). Normal gums are closely applied to the teeth but may recede and become infected or, in some conditions, hypertrophic. In edentulous subjects examine the gums for evidence of damage from dentures.